Why Is My Urine Dark

One of the symptoms of liver disease is Jaundice. It manifests as yellowish discoloration of skin and eyes.
Excessive accumulation of bilirubin in the blood causes the discoloration
Jaundice can be categorized into Unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia or Conjugated hyperbilirubinemia.

Unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia

  • Hemolysis (Excess destruction of RBCs)
  • Gilbert syndrome (Liver disorder)

Conjugated hyperbilirubinemia

  • Excess accumulation of bilirubin due to liver diseases such as liver inflammation or obstruction in liver’s biliary system.

Liver inflammation

  • Hepatitis A, B, C and E
  • Alcoholic hepatitis
  • Wilson Disease (Excessive copper in liver)
  • Autoimmune hepatitis
  • Hemochromatosis (Excessive iron in liver)

Obstruction in liver’s biliary system

  • Stone in common bile duct
  • CBD obstruction due to tumor of gall bladder, pancreas, and CBD
  • Worm in CBD
  • CBD compression due to enlarged lymph nodes


The tests use to diagnose jaundice are:

  • Liver function test (LFT)
  • CECT Abdomen and MRCP
  • Viral markers
  • USG Abdomen


Treatment of jaundice involves management of the underlying etiology. The therapy includes:

  • Antiviral medication
  • Avoiding alcohol consumption
  • Steroids for autoimmune hepatitis
  • Wilson disease and hemochromatosis managed through copper and iron chelation, respectively
  • Bypass of biliary obstruction caused due to tumor by placement of stent, or CBD stone removal by ERCP


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